The Doorn Manifesto

team x p48 b


The Doorn Manifesto 

The Netherlands. 1954

Authors: Team X


  1. It is useless to consider the house except as a part of a community owing to the inter-action of these on each other.
  2. We should not waste our time codifying the elements of the house until the other relationship has been crystallized.
  3. ‘Habitat’ is concerned with the particular house in the particular type of community.
  4. Communities are the same everywhere.
    (1) Detached house-farm.
    (2) Village.
    (3) Towns of various sorts (industrial/admin./special).
    (4) Cities (multi-functional).
  5. They can be shown in relationship to their environment (habitat) in the Geddes valley section.
  6. Any community must be internally convenient-have ease of circulation; in consequence, whatever type of transport is available, density must increase as population Increases, i.e. (1) is least dense, (4) is most dense.
  7. We must therefore study the dwelling and the groupings that are necessary to produce convenient communities at various points on the valley section.
  8. The appropriateness of any solution may lie in the field of architectural invention rather than social anthropology.

Holland, 1954


Patrick Geddes’ influences on postwar urbanism and specifically on Team X are well known. The “Valley Section” included in the manifesto is an evolution of the Geddesian “ValleySection” of 1909 and 1917. The double influence  of Geddes as  biologist and urbanist will leave two great contributions to Team X: the evolutionary character of the city and the relationship between home and its community.

Las influencias de Patrick Geddes en el urbanismo de posguerra y en concreto en el Team X son bien conocidas. La “Valley Section” incluida en el manifiesto es una evolución de la “ValleySection” geddesiana de 1909 y de 1917. La doble figura de biólogo y urbanista de Geddes dejará dos grandes aportaciones al Team X: el carácter evolutivo de la ciudad y la relación entre la vivienda y su comunidad.

The first point of the Doorn Manifesto affirmed that the house could no longer be understood as an individual unit but as part of a community, since both are in continuous interaction. Recall that the concept of population comes from the biology of Charles Darwin, who had demonstrated that  species evolution  occurs within a population and never exclusively from an isolated individual.

El primer punto del Manifiesto de Doorn afirmaba que la casa ya no puedeser entendida como una unidad individual sino como parte de una comunidad, ya que ambas están en continua interacción.  Recordemos que el concepto de población proviene de la biología de Charles Darwin, quien había demostrado que la evolución de una especie se produce en el seno de una población y nunca exclusivamente a partir de un individuo aislado.

This is the very only manifesto issued by Team X, since they soon gave up any taxing attitude to move further away from the dogmatic principles of Modernism. In spite of this, the interaction between the dwelling and its community will be one of the common joint  in most of the proposals by Team X members. Thus, the habitat will no longer be understood as an isolated or closed system, but as part of an open system in continuous relation with its environment.

Este es el único manifiesto que emitió el Team X, ya que pronto abandonaron toda actitud impositiva para alejarse aún más de los principios dogmáticos del Movimiento Moderno. A pesar de ello, la interacción entre la vivienda y su comunidad será uno de los puntos comunes en la mayoría de las propuestas de los miembros del Team X. Así, el hábitat dejará de ser entendida como un sistema aislado o cerrado, sino como parte de un sistema abierto en continua relación con el entorno.

Manuel Pérez Romero – nodo17


“The Doorn Manifesto”. Evolutionary Urbanism

3 thoughts on “The Doorn Manifesto

  1. I am no longer sure the place you are getting your info, however great topic. I must spend a while studying more or understanding more. Thanks for excellent info I used to be looking for this info for my mission.


  2. I’m now not sure where you are getting your info, but good topic. I needs to spend some time studying much more or understanding more. Thanks for excellent information I was on the lookout for this information for my mission.


    • Thanks for your comment. Door Manifesto was the only manifesto wrote by Team X. Unlike Modern Movement, Team X members did not want to impose any kind of ideas or to be dogmatic. If you want to go deeper check the work from biologist-urbanist Patrick Geddes and the Valley Section.


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